2018 Musculoskeletal Outcomes From Chronic High-Speed, High-Impulse Resistance Exercise
           International Journal of Sports Medicine scheduled for publication 6-2018
While bones and muscles adapt to mechanical loading, it appears that very specific types of stimuli must be applied to
achieve osteogenesis. Our study assessed musculoskeletal outcomes to 30 training sessions on an Inertial Exercise Trainer
(Newnan, GA). Subjects (n = 13) performed workouts with their left leg, while their right served as an untreated control. Workouts
entailed three 60-s sets each of knee extension, hip extension and calf press exercises, separated by 90-s rests. Before
and after the 30 training sessions, subjects underwent strength tests (knee and ankle extensors of both legs), DEXA scans (hip,
knee and ankles of both legs), and blood draws. After 30 training sessions 2 × 2 ANOVAs showed left leg peak torques rose
significantly. 2 × 2 ANCOVAs, with bone scan area as a covariate showed significant left leg calcaneal bone mineral content
( + 29 %) and density ( + 33 %) increases after 30 training sessions. A significant decline in C-terminal telopeptides of type I
collagen, a blood marker of bone resorption, also occurred after 30 training sessions. The Inertial Exercise Trainer’s large
volume of training session repetitions elicited high peak force, peak acceleration and impulses that likely provided a mechanical
loading stimulus that evoked calcaneal accretion.
link to come at publication

            Medicina Sportiva
            Med Sport 18 (4): 185-191, 2014
            Steve W. Davison1(A,G), Bill V. Rumpler2(B), Amanda G. Barbosa1(D,F), Evelyn V. Gutierrez1(DF), John F. Caruso1(C,D,E,F).
            1Exercise and Sports Science Program, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, USA
            2Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA
Introduction: A male and female subject performed a high-speed total body circuit-based
workout on an Impulse (Impulse Training Systems; Newnan, GA) exercise machine for the purpose
of examining their metabolic responses to this training modality.
Results: Net volumes of work done by our male and female subjects were 8124.5 and 6177.6 kilojoules respectively. Net energy costs
for our male and female subjects were 405.5 and 339.7 kilocalories respectively. Despite the modest resistance employed, our
energy expenditures are comparable to those from other resistive exercise studies, some of which entailed longer workouts and
higher absolute loads. As compared to the male, our female subject had comparatively higher lipolysis during and after the
workout, which may be due to several factors that include inter-gender differences in intramuscular triglyceride distribution
and hormonal activity.
Conclusions: Despite its novelty and modest loads, it appears a circuit weight training bout on the Impulse elicits high energy
costs and a relatively higher degree of post-exercise lipolysis in women

2013     Electromyography and high-speed elbow flexor exercise
            Isokinetics and Exercise Science 21 (2013) 141–150
            Mark E. Davidson, Catherine M. Shepherd, James Biga, SteveW. Davison, Rachel M. Giebel,
            Jessica L. Charles, Lexis A. Learmonth and John F. Caruso
            Exercise and Sports Science Program, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, USA
This study documents the unique ability Impulse produces perserving muscle co-contraction during high speed activities under variable loads by assessed motor unit behavior and muscle function from high-speed unilateral elbow flexor workouts.
Electromyography and performance data were obtained from subjects who completed three workouts on an Impulse (Impulse Training Systems; Newnan, GA) exercise machine. Comprised of both tonic and phasic repetitions, workouts were done with three different loads (1.13, 3.4 and 6.8 kg) added to the machine. Electromyography was measured from three muscles (biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis). Dependent variable means, obtained as the elbow flexed and extended, were compared with 2 (tonic, phasic) x2 (men, women) x3 (1.13, 3.4 and 6.8 kg) ANOVAs, with repeated measures for repetition and load. Bonferroni’s adjustment preserved family-wise error rates and t-tests served as a post-hoc. With α = 0.05, several dependent variables displayed intra-repetition and -load effects. However triceps root mean square (RMS) values displayed repetition x load interactions for both elbow flexion and extension. The triceps, an elbow flexion antagonist, may act as an important joint stabilizer, particularly at faster velocities and more extended joint angles. Unlike isometric or standard low-velocity paradigms performed
against heavy loads, high-speed exercise may entail a more equitable distribution among factors (motor unit recruitment, rate coding, reflex potentiation, antagonist co-contraction) responsible for current triceps RMS values.

2010     The Benefits of Low-Friction Resistance Training in an Adolescent Baseball Player
            Medicina Sportiva
            Steve W. Davison1, John F. Caruso2, Skyler T. Taylor2, Brant M. Lutz3, Nathan M. Olson2, Melissa L. Mason2, David J. Szymanski4
            Introduction/Aim of the Study: Our case report details the effects of workouts done on a novel low-friction inertial exercise trainer (IET; Impulse Training Systems, Newnan GA) over a 140-day period by a young baseball player to improve his pitch velocity.


2012   Net Energy Expenditure of Gravity-Independent High-Speed Resistive Exercise Done by Women

Introduction: Elevated metabolism is common to spaceflight while exercise in microgravity exacerbates energy costs. Thus in-flight exercise countermeasures must be devised that minimize energy costs as they are performed on hardware operable in microgravity. Methods: Female subjects (N = 28), subdivided into athletic and sedentary groups, each performed two workouts on a resistive exercise device (Impulse Training Systems; Newnan, GA).


      Impact of acceleration on blood lactate values derived from high-speed resistance exercise

              Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,

              Caruso J.F., Hari P., Leeper A., Coday M.A., Monda, J.K., Ramey E.S., Hastings L.P.,

              Golden M.R., and Davison S (In Press).


2009         Anthropometry as a predictor of high-speed performance -.International Journal of Sports Medicine

                Caruso J.F., Ramey E.S., Hastings L.P., Monda J.K., Coday M.A., McLagan J.R., and Drummond J.L

                 30(7): 522-525.


2009          Blood lactate responses to exercise performed on a high-speed inertial device
                 Isokinetics and Exercise Science.. Caruso J.F., Monda J.K., Hastings L.P., Ramey E.S.,
                 Coday M.A., McLagan J.R., and Wickel E.E.   17(1): 1-7.

To assess blood lactate and performance variables obtained from high-speed exercise performed on a device (Impulse Training Systems; Newnan GA) that imposes loads without gravitational resistance, subjects (n = 45) completed two tonic and two phasic workouts. Each high-speed workout entailed two 60-second sets of seated knee- and hip-extension repetitions separated by a 90-second rest period. Pre- and five minutes post-exercise, lactate concentration was measured from a fingertip blood drop with a calibrated analyzer (Accusport, Sports Resource Group, Hawthorne, NY). Mean blood lactate values were compared with a 2(contractile mode: tonic, phasic) × 2(time) × 2 (gender) ANOVA, with repeated measures applied to workout mode and time. Resistance exercise performance variables were assessed with 2 (contractile mode: tonic, phasic) × 2 (gender) ANOVAs. With α ? 0.05, results showed a time (post > pre) effect for blood lactate. Exercise performance values were impacted by workout mode and gender, yet those independent variables had no impact on blood lactate. Results concur with prior resistance exercise studies that show significant blood lactate increases over time. Additional inquiry is warranted as to why gender and workout mode influenced resistance exercise performance variables, but did not impact blood lactate.


2008          Performance evaluation of a high-speed inertial exercise trainer

                 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

                 Caruso J.F., Hari P., Coday M.A., Leeper A., R

A high-speed, low-resistance inertial exercise trainer (IET, Impulse Training Systems, Newnan, Ga) is increasingly employed in rehabilitative and athletic performance settings. Repetitions on an IET are done through a large range of motion because multijoint movements occur over more than one plane of motion, with no limitation on velocities or accelerations attained. The current study purpose is to assess data reproducibility from an instrumented IET through multiple test-retest measures. Data collection methods required the IET left and right halves to be fitted with a TLL-2K force transducer (Transducer Techniques, Temecula, Calif) on one of its pulleys, and an infrared position sensor (Model CX3-AP-1A, located midway on the underside of each track. Signals passed through DI-158U signal conditioners (DATAQ Instruments, Akron, Ohio) and were measured with a four-channel analog data acquisition card at 4000 Hz. To assess data reproducibility, college-age subjects (n = 45) performed four IET workouts that were spaced 1 week apart. Workouts entailed two 60-second sets of repetitive knee- and hip-extensor muscle actions as subjects were instructed to exert maximal voluntary effort. Results from multiple test-retest measures show that the IET elicited reproducible intra- and interworkout data despite the unique challenge of multiplanar and multijoint exercise done over a large range of motion. We conclude that future studies in which IET performance measurement is required may choose to instrument the device with current methodology. Current practical applications include making IET data easier to comprehend for the coaches, athletes, and health care providers who use the device.


2007           Body mass and exercise variable relationships to lactate derived from gravity-independent devices

                  Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine.

                  Caruso J.F., Coday M.A., Monda J.K., Roberts K.P., and Potter W.T.  78(9): 864-870.


2007            Instrumentation of a high-speed inertial exercise device with load cell transducers

                    53rd International Instrumentation Symposium (Published Conference Proceedings

                   Expanded Short Communication).

                   Leeper M A., Coday M.A., Harikumar P. and Caruso J.F. Volume 470: ISBN 987-1-934394-18-2..

For each workout set the following variables were recorded: peak force (PF), average force (AF), and total work (TW). To assess the degree of reproducibility of the data collected, intraclass and interclass correlation coefficient (CC) values were determined from this data. CC values are considered a means by which to assess the degree of agreement between measures (2, 5). It may be defined as the covariance between two measures divided by the total variance (4). Unlike basic correlation analyses, CC values do not discriminate by inflating the strength of agreement between paired values, or on the basis of sample size (6). CC may also be calculated in such a way as to be sensitive to systematic bias in the data (1).


No subjects were injured from their project participation. Intra- and inter-workout CC values are shown below. Intra-workout results compared variables from within a given workout (tonic set 1 vs. tonic set 2 for example). In contrast, inter-workout values compared a given variable collected from different workouts (a tonic set 1 variable from the first workout versus the same variable obtained from tonic set 1 of the second workout).



2004              A Concentric and Eccentric Loading Regime for Shoulder Rehabilitation,

                     Karen P. Norton1 and Sean S. Kohles2, 1 U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, MA;

                     2 Kohles Bioengineering, Portland State University, and Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.

                    .Volume 221, Number 3  

The shoulder joint mechanics of the impulse inertial exercise have been successfully quantified. The results of this study will aid therapists in the monitoring of patient rehabilitation by providing them with the essential force and moment information.



2003              Functional effects of inertial training of the upper extremity

                     Journal of Sport Rehabilitation,  McLoda, Todd A., Murphy, Kate M., Davison, Steve, 1056-6716

A study conducted to determine the effects of inertial training on selected functional components of throwing is discussed. A device called Impulse Inertial Trainer that was selected for the inertial training revealed that for experienced throwers, functional measures and muscle activity were not affected by inertial training of the upper extremity. 


2001              Electromyographic activity and applied load during seated quadriceps exercises

                     Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, “”, James W Matheson, Thomas W. Kernozek, Dennis C.W.,

                     and George J. Davies, October 2001, Volume 33, Number 10

This paper compares the Impulse to other forms of strength training such as free weights, isokinetics and theraband much like the previous papers.   However, this paper tests the lower extremities rather than the upper extremities.  EMG analysis was the main interest, however strength gains were measured.   The results were similar to previous research in that the Impulse outperformed the other training devices and techniques in both strength gains and EMG activity. 



2001               Shoulder Plyometrics

                      Sports Medicine & Arthroscopy Review..
                      Davies, George J. M.Ed., P.T., S.C.S., A.T.C., C.S.C.S. *+; Matheson, James W. M.S., P.T., C.S.C.S. *

                       9(1):1-18, January/February/March 2001

Rehabilitation and training of the shoulder in throwing and overhead athletes has dramatically changed during the last decade. Athletes are returning to participation in overhead sports faster than ever. There are numerous reasons for this rapid return to athletic training or competition. These reasons include increased anatomic understanding of the shoulder complex, increased understanding of the biomechanics that occur at the shoulder complex in sports, and ability to integrate this new knowledge into performance enhancement. In addition, a better understanding of the scientific and clinical concepts of plyometrics has facilitated this improvement in performance. Although there are numerous studies regarding the application of plyometrics in the lower extremities, there are very few regarding the application of plyometrics to the upper extremities. This article describes the physiologic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological basis of upper extremity plyometrics with an emphasis on clinical application. 


1997                 Kinetic and Kinematic Characteristics of Plyometric Exercise on the

                        Impulse Machine for Elbow Flexors

                        Journal of Physical Therapy Science, , Shuichi Obuchi1), James E. Tracy2) and Benjamin F. Johnson3 ,

                        Vol. 9 (1997) , No. 1 33-41

The data collected in this study provide objective kinematic and EMG data for elbow flexion motion during inertial exercise performed at five different loads. 1) There were significant differences between the phasic and tonic exercise technique and between different loads. 2) There was a general trend for peak angular velocity and peak platform accelerations to increase as the load decreased. 3) There was significantly greater mean and peak triceps brachii muscle activity (EMG) during the phasic exercise and significantly greater mean and peak EMG activity in the biceps brachii muscle between the loads of 9.07 kg and 0 kg. 4) Significantly greater range of motion occurred during the tonic exercise. 5) Athletic trainers using inertial exercise should therefore consider both the exercise technique and load parameters when designing protocols to meet the specific demands of their patients and athletes.



1995                   Electromyographic Analysis of Elbow Flexion During Inertial Exercise

                          Journal of Athletic Training, NATA, Volume 30, Number 3, “Kinematics &”,

                          James Tracy, MS, PT, ATC, CSCS; Shuchi Obuchi, MS, PT; Ben Johnson, PhD,

                          September 1995

This paper duplicated the Albert research with an emphasis on EMG. (The Albert paper only measured strength gains).  This paper documents considerable EMG activity in several modes of muscle contraction.  Again the Impulse outperformed other forms of training both in strength gains as well as EMG volume.



1995                 Functional Plyometric Exercises for the Throwing Athlete

                        Journal of Athletic Training,  David J. Pezzullo, MS, PT, ATC; Steven Karas, MS, ATC;

                        James J Irrgang, MS, PT, ATC;

                        J30(1): 22–26 

This paper reviewed the practical application of the Impulse to the throwing athlete.  It chronicles the performance aspect of training as no other training device known can duplicate the functional angular velocities of inertial exercise.



 1995         Kinematic and Electromyographic Analysis of Elbow Flexion During Inertial Exercise

                      Journal of Athletic Training, NATA , James E. Tracy, MS, PT, ATC, CSCS; Shuchi Obuchi, MS, PT;

                     Ben Johnson, PhD;

                     Volume 30, Number 3  

Inertial exercise protocols are currently used clinically to improve and restore normal muscle function even though research to substantiate their effectiveness cannot be cited in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare simultaneous kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data obtained from 12 subjects during elbow flexion on the Impulse Inertial Exercise System. Testing sessions consisted of inertial exercise performed using phasic and tonic techniques with loads of: a) 0 kg, b) 2.27 kg, c) 4.54 kg, d) 6.80 kg, e) 9.07 kg. Greater peak angular velocities, peak platform accelerations (change in velocity of platform during elbow flexion), mean and peak triceps brachii muscle EMG activity, and less range of motion were observed during phasic exercise. There was also a general trend for peak angular velocities and peak platform acceleration to increase as the load decreased. No significant difference in mean or peak EMG activity of the biceps brachii muscle was seen between techniques. Clinicians and athletic trainers using inertial exercise should consider both the exercise technique and load characteristics when designing protocols to meet the specific needs of patients. 


1994                   Muscle Torque Changes Caused by Inertial Exercise Training

                          JOSPT , Mark Albert, MEd., PT, ATC; Ellen Hillegass; Peter Spiegel,

                          Volume 20, Number 5November 1994

This research was the first to document superior strength gains in training with the Impulse versus other methods of training.  Here inertial exercise outperformed isokinetics, theraband, and free weights as measured by isokinetics. The final result measured being strength gains both eccentrically and concentrically.